If India has to emerge as an economic power in the world, our agricultural productivity should equal those countries, which are currently rated as economic power of the world. We need a new and effective technology which can improve continuously the productivity, profitability, sustainability of our major farming systems.
One such technology is the greenhouse technology. Although it is centuries old, it is new to India. Growing plants is both an art and a science. About 95% of plants, either food crops or cash crops are grown in open field. In some of the temperate regions where the climatic conditions are extremely adverse and no crops can be grown, man has developed methods of growing some high value crop continuously by providing protection from the excessive cold, which is called as Greenhouse Technology. So, Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favourable environment condition to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from the adverse climatic conditions such as wind, cold, precipitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects and diseases. It is also of vital importance to create an ideal micro climate around the plants.
Greenhouses are framed or inflated structures covered with transparent or translucent material large enough to grow crops under partial or fully controlled environmental conditions to get optimum growth and productivity.
This is possible by erecting a greenhouse / glass house, where the environmental conditions are so modified that one can grow any plant in any place at any time by providing suitable environmental conditions with minimum labour.
The National Committee on the use of Plastics in Agriculture (NCPA-1982) has recommended location specific trials of greenhouse technology for adoption in various regions of the country.
The yield may be 10-12 times higher than that of outdoor cultivation depending upon the type of greenhouse, type of crop, environmental control facilities.
- Reliability of crop increases under greenhouse cultivation.
- Ideally suited for vegetables and flower crops.
- Year round production of floricultural crops.
- Off-season production of vegetable and fruit crops.
- Disease-free and genetically superior transplants can be produced continuously.
- Efficient utilisation of chemicals, pesticides to control pest and diseases.
- Water requirement of crops very limited and easy to control.
- Maintenance of stock plants, cultivating grafted plant-lets and micro propagated plant-lets.